Volume 8, Issue 4, July 2020, Page: 70-76
Major Constraints of Watershed Management Practices in Ethiopia and Ways Forward
Daniel Jaleta Negasa, Ethiopian Environment and Forest Research Institute, Central Ethiopia Environment and Forest Research Center, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Received: Jul. 21, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 30, 2020;       Published: Aug. 10, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20200804.11      View  213      Downloads  144
Watershed management gives an opportunity for understanding and reconciling the interconnections among various land use systems. Watershed management has an old history that can be related to ancient mankind agricultural activities though the holistic way of conserving natural resources under watershed. There are various opportunities under watershed management such as jobs, getting benefits, conserving nature and reducing negative impacts together. However, there are challenges arises during implementing the watershed management in different watersheds. The challenges should be clearly identified and forwarding solution should be given for policy and decision makers in order to improve the successes and benefits of watershed management in Ethiopia. The aim of this review was to identify the constraints of watershed management measures in Ethiopia and provide ways forward in tackling the challenges. Watershed management was officially initiated and practiced in Ethiopia for five decades and some successes have been achieved and different degraded sites were changed to productive sites. However, the failure of different watershed management measures was observed across the country as a result of various constraints of watershed management in Ethiopia. Some of the major constraints of watershed management in Ethiopia are lack of awareness among policymakers, policy and strategy related constraints, socio-economic and biophysical constraints, capacity constraints, financial and incentive constraints and lack of community awareness. Some of the recommendations were given as follow: policy and strategies should be applied at a watershed level as it presented in the document; compressive technical capacity building training should be given to the local experts and extensionists and information center should be created for sharing data between concerned institutions and stakeholders about the technologies in watershed management practices.
Policy, Strategy, Socioeconomic, Biophysical Constraints, Community Awareness
To cite this article
Daniel Jaleta Negasa, Major Constraints of Watershed Management Practices in Ethiopia and Ways Forward, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 70-76. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20200804.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Darghouth, S., Christopher, W., Gretel, G., Erika, S., Julienne, R. (2008). Watershed Management Approaches, Policies, and Operations: Lessons for Scaling Up. Water Sector Board Discussion Papers, no. 11: 1–164.
Bewket, W. (2003). Towards Integrated Watershed Management in Highland Ethiopia; the Chemoga Watershed Case Study, pp 176.
Chimdesa, G. (2016). Historical Perspectives and Present Scenarios of Watershed Management in Ethiopia. International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology and Management 1 (3): 115–27. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnrem.20160103.17.
Gebregziabher, G., Dereje A. A., Girmay G., Meredith G., and Simon L. (2016). An Assessment of Integrated Watershed Management in Ethiopia. https://doi.org/10.5337/2016.214.
FAO. (2017). Watershed Management in Action: Lessons Learned from FAO Field Projects. Mountain Research and Development. Vol. 39. https://doi.org/10.1659/mrd.mm230.
Pandurang, K. V., Sushma, S. K., Vidula, A. S. (2012). Watershed Management: Concept, Principles and Challenges to Improving Productivity, Resources and Livelihoods. Manager’s Journal on Civil Engineering 2 (2): 1–10. https://doi.org/10.26634/jce.2.2.1833.
Rao, R. J. (2005). Participatory Watershed Management (PWM): An Approach for Integrated Development of Rural India: A Case Study from Karnataka, Southern India. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management 5 (1): 107. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJETM.2005.006510.
Abebaw, W. A. (2019). Review on the Role of Integrated Watershed Management for Rehabilitation Degraded Land in Ethiopia. 9 (11): 14–20. https://doi.org/10.7176/JBAH.
Beshah, T. (2003). Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia. PhD Thesis, 141.
Förch, W. (2003). Case Study: The Agricultural System of the Konso in South. 1: 1–15.
Edwards, S. (2010). Ethiopian Environment Review. Addis Ababa.
Angassa, A. (2007). The Dynamics of Savanna Ecosystems and Management in Borana, Southern Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
Gupta, A. K., Sreeja, S. N., Vinod, K. S. (2018). Watershed Management: An Integrated Mission. Daya Publishing House.
Terefe, R. H. (2015). The Link between Ethnobotany and Watershed Development for Sustainable Use of Land and Plant Resources in Ethiopia. Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography 05 (02). https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7625.1000161.
Adgo E, Teshome A, Mati B (2013). Impacts of long-term soil and water conservation on agricultural productivity: the case of Anjenie watershed, Ethiopia. Agricultural Water Management 117: 55–61. https://doi.org/10.1 016/j.agwat.2012.10.026.
Adimassu Z, Mekonnen K, Yirga C, Kessler A (2014). Effect of soil bunds on run-off, soil and nutrient losses, and crop yield in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Land Degrad Develop 25 (6): 554–564. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2182.
Haregeweyn, N., Tsunekawa, A., Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Tsubo, M., Meshesha, D. T., Schutt, B., Adgo, E., Tegegne, F. (2015). Soil erosion and conservation in Ethiopia: a review. Prog Phys Geogr 39 (6): 750–774. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133315598725.
Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Moeyersons, J., Haile, M., Deckers, J. (2008). Dynamics of soil erosion rates and controlling factors in the Northern Ethiopian Highlands towards a sediment budget. Earth Surf Process Landforms 33 (5): 695–711. https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.1569.
Belayneh, M., Teshome, Y., Dereje, T. (2019). Effects of Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Soil Physicochemical Properties in Gumara Watershed, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Ecological Processes 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-019-0188-2.
AMAREW (2007). Amhara Micro-enterprise development, Agricultural Research, Extension, and Watershed management (AMAREW) Project Terminal Report July 2002-December 2007.
Worku, T., Sangharsh, K. T. (2015). Watershed Management in Highlands of Ethiopia: A Review Watershed Management in Highlands of Ethiopia. Open Access Library Journal, 2: e1481. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101481.
Gashaw, T. (2015). The Implications of Watershed Management for Reversing Land Degradation in Ethiopia. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Management, 4, 5-12.
Gebregziabher, G. (2012). Watershed Management in Ethiopia. Agwater Solution Solutions.
Mekonen, K. Tesfahunegn, G. B. (2011) Impact Assessment of Soil and Water Conservation Measures at Medego Watershed in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology, 5.
Tongul, H., Matt, H. (2013). Scaling up an Integrated Watershed Management Approach through Social Protection Programmes in Ethiopia: The MERET and PSNP Schemes. Hunger Nutrition Climate Justice. A New Dialogue: Putting People at the Heart of Global Development. Case studies policy response, pp 4.
Lal, R. (2000). Integrated Watershed Management in the Global Ecosystem. Washington, D.C: CRC Press.
Haile, M. (2006). Sustainable Land Management: A New Approach to Soil and Water Conservation in Ethiopia.
Hadush, M. (2015). The Role of Community Based Watershed Management for Climate Change Adaptation in Adwa, Central Tigray Zone. International Journal of Weather, Climate Change and Conservation Research 1 (1): 11–35.
Desta, L., Carucci, V., Wendem-Agenehu, A., Abebe, Y. (2005). Community Based Participatory Watershed Development: A Guideline. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
César, E. Ekbom, A. (2013). Ethiopia Environmental and Climate Change Policy Brief. Sida’s Helpdesk for Environment and Climate Change.
Birhanu, A. (2014). Environmental Degradation and Management in Ethiopian Highlands: Review of Lessons Learned. Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy, 2, 24-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ijepp.20140201.14.
Admassie, Y. (2000). Twenty Years to Nowhere: Property Rights, Land Management and Conservation in Ethiopia. Red Sea Pr.
Wani, S. P., Johan, R., Sahrawat, K. L. (2011). Integrated Watershed Management in Rainfed Agriculture. Integrated Watershed Management in Rainfed Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1201/b11424.
Gete, Z., Menale, K., Pender, J. and Mahmud, Y. (2006). Stakeholder Analysis for Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in Ethiopia: Assessment of Opportunities, Strategic Constraints, Information Needs, and Knowledge Gaps. Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), Ethiopia.
Taddese, G. (2001). Land Degradation: A Challenge to Ethiopia. Environmental Management, 27, 815-824. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002670010190.
Hurni, H. (1990). Degradation and conservation of the resources in the Ethiopian highlands. Mou Res Dev 8: 123-130.
Mountain Research and Development 25 (2): 147–54.
Meseret, D. (2016). Land Degradation in Amhara Region of Ethiopia: Review on Extent, Impacts and Rehabilitation Practices, Journal of Environment and Earth Science 6 (1): 120–30.
Dogo, B. A. (2014). Restoration of Degraded Gidan Waya Forest Reserve. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 3, 146-152. doi: 10.5901/ ajis. 2014.v3n7p146.
UNCCD. (2013). A Stronger UNCCD for a Land-Degradation Neutral World, Issue Brief, Bonn, Germany.
Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Moeyersons, J., Deckers, J., Haile, M., Lang, A. (2004). Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands – A state of the art. Earth-Science Reviews, 64, 273–320.
Bishaw, B. (2001). Deforestation and land degradation in Ethiopian high lands: a strategy for physical recovery. North East African Studies 8 (1): 7-25.
Tamene, L., Vlek, P. L. G (2008). Soil erosion studies in northern Ethiopia. In: Braimoh AK, Vlek PLG (Eds.), Land use and soil resources, Springer Science, 7 Business Media, B. V. Dordrecht. pp 73–100.
Hurni, H., Solomon., A, Amare, B., Berhanu, D., Ludi, E., Portner, B., Birru, Y. Gete, Z. (2010). Land degradation and sustainable land management in the highlands of Ethiopia. In Hurni H, Wiesmann U (ed) with an international group of co-editors. Global change and sustainable development: A synthesis of regional experiences from research partnerships. Georaphica Bernensia. 5: 187-201.
Gashaw, B. A., Gebre-Silassie, H. (2014). Land degradation in Ethiopia: causes, impacts and rehabilitation techniques. Journal of Environment and Earth Science 4 (9): 98-104.
Amogne A. E. (2014). Forest resource management systems in Ethiopia: Historical perspective. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 6 (2), 121-131.
Bekele, M., Gebre, Y., Mohammed, Z., Zewdie, S., Tebikew, Y., Brockhaus, M. and Kassa, H. (2015). The context of REDD+ in Ethiopia: Drivers, agents and institutions, Occasional Paper 127. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.
Pender, J., Gebremedhin, B. Haile, M. (2002). Livelihood Strategies and Land Management Practices in the High- lands of Tigray. IFPRI & ILRI, Summary of Papers and Conference Proceedings, Addis Ababa, 24-27 April 2002, 70-73.
Palanisami, K, Suresh, D. K. (2009). Impacts of Watershed Development Programmes: Experiences and Evidences from Tamil Nadu. Agricultural Economics Research Review 22: 387–96.
Tolon, U. W. (2008). Comparison of Urban Upgrading Projects on Development Cooperation in Ethiopia. working paper, pp 32.
Jaleta, D. N., Mbilinyi, B. P. Mahoo, H. F., Lemenih, M. (2017). Effect of Eucalyptus expansion on surface runoff in the central highlands of Ethiopia, Ecological Processes, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–8.
Sanchez, P. A., Cheryl, A. P., Stanley, W. B. (2003). Fertility Capability Soil Classification: A Tool to Help Assess Soil Quality in the Tropics. Geoderma 114 (3–4): 157–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(03)00040-5.
Jaleta, D. N. (2020). Effects of Land Use Types on Selected Soil Properties in Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. Volume 2020, Article ID 7026929, pp 9.
Jaleta, D. N., Mbilinyi, B. P. Mahoo, H. F., Lemenih, M. (2016). Evaluation of land use/land cover changes and eucalyptus expansion in Meja Watershed, Ethiopia,” Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–12.
Hurni, H., Kebede, T., Gete, Z. (2005). The Implications of Changes in Population, Land Use, and Land Management for Surface Runoff in the Upper Nile Basin Area of Ethiopia. Mountain Research and Development 25 (2): 147–54.
Teshome, M. (2014). Population Growth and Cultivated Land in Rural Ethiopia: Land Use Dynamics, Access, Farm Size, and Fragmentation” 4 (3): 148–61. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.re.20140403.03.
Adimassu, Z, Kessler, A., Stroosnijder, L. (2013). Co-Investments in Land Management: Lessons from the Galessa Watershed in Ethiopia. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 20 (6): 532–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2013.840340.
Adimassu, Z., Mekonnen, K., Yirga, C., Kessler, A. (2012). Effect of Soil Bunds on Runoff, Soil and Nutrient Losses, and Crop Yield in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia: Effect of Soil Bunds on Runoff, Losses of Soil, and Nutrients. Land Degradation & Development, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2182.
Environmental Advisory Council (EAC) (2007). We Are All Downstream, We Are All Upstream, We Are All Part of a Watershed: A Report on the Public Consultations on Managing Land and Water on a Watershed Basis. Minister of Environment, Energy and Forestry, pp: 57.
Atoma, H., Suryabhagavan, K V., Balakrishnan, M. (2020). Soil Erosion Assessment Using RUSLE Model and GIS in Huluka Watershed, Central Ethiopia. Sustainable Water Resources Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-020-00365-z.
Miheretu, B. A., Yimer, A. A. (2017). Determinants of Farmers’ Adoption of Land Management Practices in Gelana Sub-Watershed of Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. Ecological Processes. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-017-0085-5.
Bossio, D., Kim G. (2008). Conserving Land, Protecting Water. London, UK: CAB International.
Browse journals by subject