Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2020, Page: 1-10
Determination of the Level of Mercury Toxicity of Fish in Rivers Draining Gold Panning Sites in the Territory of Fizi, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
Nsambu Mukondwa Pascal, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Doctoral Cycle, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo;Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Environment, Evangelical University in Africa, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo;General Agronomy Section, High Institute of Agronomic and Veterinary Studies of Mushweshwe, Bukavu, Democratic Republic of Congo
Musibono Eyul’Anki Dieudonné, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Doctoral Cycle, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mputu Kanyinda Jean-Noël, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Doctoral Cycle, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Received: Dec. 21, 2019;       Accepted: Dec. 30, 2019;       Published: Jan. 9, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20200801.11      View  253      Downloads  91
Abstract
The specimens of the studied fish were taken from the same sites along the rivers during 4 Campaigns (August 2016, December 2016, August 2017 and December 2017). This study specifically aims to evaluate the level of mercury toxicity in fish from these rivers based on their total mercury content and the ratio between the molar concentrations of total selenium and total mercury (TSe: THg). Total selenium and total mercury were measured in fish by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The molar concentrations of total mercury were determined by dividing the total mercury concentrations obtained for each fish by its molar mass of about 200.59 g.mol-1. Also, the total selenium molar concentrations were determined by dividing the total selenium contents obtained for each fish by its molar mass of order of 78.9 g.mol-1. In addition, the ratios between the molar concentrations of total selenium and total mercury (TSe: THg) were calculated from the quotient between the molar concentrations of total selenium and total mercury. The results found that all fish from the rivers of the Fizi gold panning sites studied had total mercury concentrations well above the fish quality standards (0.5 mg.Kg-1). Silurus sp fish had the highest total mercury levels compared to other fish, followed respectively by Haplochromis sp and Oreochromis sp. However, it was found that all these species of fish studied do not pose a threat to human health because their molar concentrations of total selenium and total mercury (TSe: THg) are at least greater than 1. Oreochromis sp had the highest ratios of TSe: THg molar concentrations to other fish successively followed by fish Haplochromis sp and Silurus sp. It would be necessary to train gold miners in the territory of Fizi about the proper management of gold washing effluents.
Keywords
Gold Panning, Sites, Total Mercury Content, Fish, Fizi Territory, East, Democratic Republic of Congo
To cite this article
Nsambu Mukondwa Pascal, Musibono Eyul’Anki Dieudonné, Mputu Kanyinda Jean-Noël, Determination of the Level of Mercury Toxicity of Fish in Rivers Draining Gold Panning Sites in the Territory of Fizi, Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20200801.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Cresson, P., Bouchoucha, M., F. Mirallesand R. Elleboode, Are red mullet efficient as bio-indicators of mercury contamination? A case study from the French Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2015. 91: p. 191–199.
[2]
Houserova, P., Kuban, V., P. Spurny andP. Habarta, Determination of total mercury and mercury species in fish and aquatic ecosystems of Moravian rivers. Veterinarni Medicina. 2006.51 (3): p. 101–110.
[3]
Hardisson, A., C. Rubio and A. Gutierrez, Total mercury in aquaculture fish. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 2012. 21 (5): p. 1203-1209.
[4]
N. Marusczak, Etude du transfert du mercure et du méthylmercure dans les écosystèmes lacustres alpins. Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de l’environnement, Université de Grenoble, France, 2010.
[5]
David, C., Neil, M., Robin, A., Randy, B., Satyendra, P., A. Jennifer andJ. Kevin, An overview of mercury concentrations in freshwater fish species: a national fish mercury dataset for Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2013. 70: p. 1-16.
[6]
W. Munyaas, Un civil dans la guerre en RDC, l’errance d’un réfugié congolais. Ed Harmattan, Paris, 2006.
[7]
M. A. H, Détermination du mercure: méthode par spectrophotométrie d’absorption atomique, formation de vapeur. Centre d’expertise en analyse environnementale du Québec, 2006.
[8]
A. Boumehres, Etude comparative des techniques d’extraction des éléments traces métalliques dans le foie, le rein et le lait et leur détermination par spectrométrie d’absorption atomique (flamme et four graphite). Mémoire de Magister en médecine vétérinaire, Université de Toulouse, Paris, 2010.
[9]
Schneider, L., Belger, L., J. Burger and R. Vogt, Mercury bioaccumulation in four tissues of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Podocnemididae: Testudines) as a function of water parameters. The Science of the Total Environment. 2009. 407 (3): p. 1048-1054.
[10]
Yi, Y., Z. Yang and S. Zhang, Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environmental Pollution. 2011. 159: p. 2575-2585.
[11]
K. Noahand A. Anthony, Influence of mining related activities on levels of mercury in water, sediment and fish from the Ankobra and Tano River basins in South Western Ghana. Environ Syst Res. 2016. 5: p. 10-17.
[12]
Schneider, L., Belger, L., Burger, J., R. Vogt and C. Ferrara, Mercury Levels in Muscle of Six Species of Turtles Eaten by People Along the Rio Negro of the Amazon Basin. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2010. 58 (2): p. 444-450.
[13]
B. Niane, Impacts environnementaux liés à l’utilisation du mercure lors de l’exploitation artisanale de l’or dans la région de Kédougou (Sénégal oriental). Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de la Terre, Université de Genève, Genève, 2014.
[14]
Campbell, L., Verburg, P., P. Dixon and R. Hecky, Mercury biomagnification in the food web of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania, East Africa). Science of the Total Environment. 2008. 402: p. 184-191.
[15]
Ouédraogo and Aymot, Mercury, arsenic and selenium concentrations in water and fish from sub-Saharan semi-arid freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso). Science of the Total Environment. 2013. 444: p. 243-254.
[16]
Mezghani-Chaari, S., A. Hamza and A. Hamza-Chaffai, Mercury contamination in human hair and some marine species from Sfax coasts of Tunisia: levels and risk assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2011. 180: p. 477-487.
[17]
Natália, F., Gilson, A., Katharina, E., A. João and C. Marta, Benthic fish blood as a biomarker for recent exposure to mercury. Limnetica. 2018. 3 7 (1): p. 129-143.
[18]
Kidd, K., Bootsma, H., Hesslein, R., L. Lyle and R. Mecky, Mercury Concentrations in the Food Web of Lake Malawi, East Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2013. 2: p. 258-266.
[19]
Kidd, K., G. Stern and J. Lemoalle, Mercury and Other Contaminants in Fish from Lake Chad, Africa. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2014. 73: p. 249-256.
[20]
F. Hans, Mercury in boreal freshwater fish-factors and processes governing increasing concentrations. PhD dissertation in Environmental Sciences, University of Oslo, Suisse, 2015.
[21]
Kwaansa, Agorku, andNriagu, Levels of Total Mercury in Different Fish Species and Sediments from the Upper Volta at Yeji in Ghana. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2011. 86: p. 406-409.
[22]
J. Burger and M. Gochfeld, Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories. Envirn Res. 2012. 114: p. 12-23.
[23]
Kouamé, M., Godi, H., A. Yolande and A. N’Zi, Estimation de l’apport en mercure à partir de la consommation de poisson en Côte d’Ivoire. Sciences & Nature. 2007. 4 (2): p. 171–177.
[24]
Rym, E., L. Chouba et M. Kraiem., Evaluation de la contamination chimique par les métaux traces (Cd, Pb, Hg et Zn) du zooplancton et de la sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) dans le golfe de Tunis. Bull. Inst. Natn. Scien. Tech. Mer de Salammbô. 2008. 35: p. 87-94.
Browse journals by subject