Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2016, Page: 133-140
Energy Efficiency and Low Carbon Strategy on Rural Tourism Area: A Case of Mount Annapurna Trekking Route
Prem Subedi, Ministry of Industry, Government of Nepal, Singhadurbar, Kathmandu, Nepal
Shree Raj Shakya, Center for Energy Studies, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Received: Aug. 5, 2016;       Accepted: Aug. 15, 2016;       Published: Sep. 5, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20160405.14      View  4206      Downloads  135
Tourism is one of the major industries in Nepal and rural tourism is an emerging dimension in the country. This paper explores the energy consumption and emission pattern up to 2030 in the commercial sector (Hotel and Lodge) of rural tourism and conservation area. Trekking route of Mount Annapurna base camp (4130 meter) was considered for study. From the household survey of study area total energy consumption in the commercial sector was 5,560 GJ (36.26 GJ/HH) in 2014. Fuel wood was the major source of energy contributing 70.06% share on total energy and electricity contributes shares of only 13.67%. This shows high dependence on traditional fuels, which result in the degradation of forest engendering the imbalance in fragile ecosystem of conservation area. This study uses Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) modeling framework to analyze three scenarios of energy system development. First one is the business as usual scenario based on the historical trend and government plans and policies. Second is the clean kitchen scenario where efficient end use technologies are introduced in demand side and the third one is low carbon scenario where clean and renewable energy sources are introduced in supply side. It is found that under business as usual scenario the energy consumption was 5560 GJ and GHG emission was 27.3 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in 2014 and they are expected to increase by 2.26% and 1.8% respectively from 2014 to 2030. The clean kitchen scenario and low carbon scenario analyzed in this study has a significant reduction in energy consumption by 14 percent and 54.5 percent respectively in year 2030. The cumulative energy saving equivalent to the electricity saving value accounts for NRs 213 million and NRs 811.2 million at current price of electricity of Nepal. The average cumulative fuel wood saving was found to be 307 metric tons (1.8 tons per HH) for clean kitchen scenario and 1063 metric tons (6.25 tons per HH) for the low carbon scenario. The model output shows emission reduction of 2.24 percent for the clean kitchen scenario and 44.7 percent in low carbon scenario for the year 2030. Government of Nepal and Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) should formulate and implement policies and strategic planning referring the assumption of clean kitchen and low carbon scenario to reduce dependency on fuel wood for protection of the fragile ecosystem of conservation area and to maintain eco-tourism.
Energy, Environment, Rural Tourism, Eco-tourism, Low Carbon, Energy Efficiency
To cite this article
Prem Subedi, Shree Raj Shakya, Energy Efficiency and Low Carbon Strategy on Rural Tourism Area: A Case of Mount Annapurna Trekking Route, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2016, pp. 133-140. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20160405.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
WECS, "National Survey of Energy Consumption and Supply Situation in Nepal," Water and Energy Commission secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2013.
CBS, "Nepal Population and Housing Census: National Report," Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2012.
CBS, "Nepal Living Standard Survey (NLSS), Statistical Report, Vol. 1," Central Bureau of Stastistics, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2011.
Becken, S., Frampton, C. & Simmons, D., "Energy Consumption Pattern in Accommodation Sector- The New Zealand Case," Ecological Economics, Vol. 39, pp. 371-386, 2001.
Gossling, S. "Global Environmental Consequence of Tourism," Global Environment Change, 2002.
Warnken, J., Bradley, M., & Guilding, C. "Exploring Methods and Practicalities of conducting Sector Wide energy consumption accounting in the tourist accommodation industry," Energy Economic, Vol. 48, pp. 125-141, 2004.
Trung, D., & Kumar, S. "Resource use and waste management in Vietnam hotel industry," Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 13, pp. 109-116, 2005.
Nepal, Sanjay K. "Tourism-induced rural energy consumption in the Annapurna region of Nepal," Tourism Management, Vol. 29, pp. 89-100, 2008.
U, Sunlu, "Local resources and global trades: Environments and agriculture in the Mediterranean region" Environmental impacts of tourism, Vol. 57, pp. 263-270, 2003.
WECS, "Energy Sector Synopsis Report 2010," Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2010.
N. L. Panwara, S. C. Kaushikb, Surendra Kotharia, "Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 15, pp. 1513-1524, 2011.
AAM, Sayigh, "South South Networking and Cooperation on Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development," Renew Energ, Vol. 29 (15), pp. 2273-5, 2004.
Y. P. Cai, G. H. Huang, Q. Tan, Z. F. Yang, "Planning of Community- scale Renewable Energy Managemant System in a mixed and stochastic and fuzzy environment,"Renew Energ, Vol. 34, pp. 1833-1847, 2009.
WECS, "Energy Synopsis Report: 2006," Water and Energy Commission Secretariat (WECS), Kathmandu, Nepal, 2006.
NPC, "The Fifth plan (1975-80)," National Planning Commission, Kathmandu, Nepal, 1975.
NPC, "The Tenth plan (2002-2007)," National Planning Commission, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2002.
NPC, "The Thirteen plan (2013-2016)," National Planning Commission, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2013.
MOE, "Rural Energy Policy 2006," Ministry of Environment, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2006.
Ministry of Population and Environment, "Renewable Energy Subsidy Policy, 2073 BS," Ministry of Population and Environment, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2016.
SEI, "Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System: User Guide for Version 2011," Stockholm Environment Institute, Somerville, USA, 2011.
D. Connolly, H. Lund, B. V. Mathiesen, M. Leahy, "A review of computer tools for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy systems," Applied Energ, Vol. 87, pp. 1059–1082, 2010.
OECD/IEA, "Energy and Climate Change, World Energy Outlook Special Report," International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris, France, 2015.
AEPC, "Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA), Final Report (GIS Part)," United Nation Environment Programme, Global Environment Facility, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2008.
Kaski, DDC, "District Profile, kaski (Nepali Version)," District Development Committee, Kaski, Nepal, 2010.
Bhattacharyya, Dr. Subhes C., "Concepts, Issues, Markets and Governance," Energy Economics, 2011. 978-0-85729-267-4.
IPCC, "Guidelines for National Greenhouse gas inventories, IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change,"Institute for Global Environment Strategies, Japan, 2006.
Kamal, Rijal, "Renewable Energy Policy Options for Mountain Communities: Experiences from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan," Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, Policy and the Environment, Vol. 16, pp. 1138-1142, 1999.
Shakya Shree Raj, Ram M. Shrestha, "Transport sector electrification in a hydropower resource rich developing country: Energy security, environmental and climate change co-benefits, "Energy for Sustainable devlopment, vol. 15, pp. 147-159, 2011.
Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Civil Aviation, "Nepal Tourism Statistics 2012," Ministry of Culture, Tourism & Civil Aviation, Planning & Evaluation Division, Statistical Section, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2013.
MoF, "Economic Survey of Fiscal Year 2013/14," Ministry of Finance, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2014.
R. B. Thapa, R. M. Shrestha, "Metallic Improved Cook Stoves Dissemination in Mountain Region of Nepal: Experience, Financial Viability, Opportunity & Challenges,"Rentech Symposium Compendium, Vol. 3, 2013.
Browse journals by subject