Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2016, Page: 120-125
Study of Heavy Metal Contaminations in Green Leafy Vegetables and Fruits of Kitwe District, Zambia
John Siame, Department of Chemical Engineering, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Kabanda Masenga, Department of Chemical Engineering, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
James Mulwanda, Department of Chemical Engineering, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Received: Jul. 7, 2016;       Accepted: Aug. 5, 2016;       Published: Aug. 30, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20160405.12      View  4160      Downloads  136
Abstract
The heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Pb and Fe in fruits – Eggplant (Solanum melongena), Lemon (Citrus limon), Tomato (solanum lycopersicum) and Green Leafy Vegetables (GLV) – Pumpkin Leaves (telfairia occidentalis), Rape (brasicca napus), were analyzed. GLV and fruits were purchased from four different market locations (Chamboli, Chisokone, Chimwemwe and Chipata markets) located in and around Kitwe District, Zambia. The heavy metal concentrations in GLV and fruits were determined using the Perkin-Elmer 2380 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Most of the results obtained from the analysis showed high levels of heavy metal concentrations as compared to standards permissible by World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The levels of heavy metal concentrations in GLV ranged from 1.40 to 7.80 mg/kg Fe; 0.50 to 4.10 mg/kg Cu; 0.35 to 4.0 mg/kg Co; 2.00 to 9.00 mg/kg Ni; 0.70 to 5.05 mg/kg Zn; 0.40 to 1.10 mg/kg Pb, while for fruits the levels ranged from 1.30 to 7.50 mg/kg Fe; 0.50 to 3.20 mg/kg Cu; 0.50 to 4.00 Co; 1.17 to 5.10 mg/kg Ni; 0.20 to 1.25 mg/kg Zn and 0.18 to 0.50 mg/kg Pb. The high levels of heavy metal concentrations in most of the GLV and fruits could be attributed to the various anthropogenic activities taking place in the four locations, with mining activities being the most common contributor. However, if not controlled or monitored by local authorities, the health effects that come with consuming contaminated food may be fatal.
Keywords
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Concentrations, Contaminations, Fruits, Green Leafy Vegetables, Heavy Metals
To cite this article
John Siame, Kabanda Masenga, James Mulwanda, Study of Heavy Metal Contaminations in Green Leafy Vegetables and Fruits of Kitwe District, Zambia, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2016, pp. 120-125. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20160405.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Government of the Republic of Zambia, “Mining in Zambia”, Ministry of Mines and Minerals Development, Available online: http://www.zambiamining.co.zm/industrialminerals.htm Accessed on: 06/07/2016.
[2]
UN-HABITAT, “Zambia: Kitwe Urban Profile”, UNON, 2009. Nairobi. Available online: www.un-habitat.org Accessed: 29/06/2016.
[3]
Government of the Republic of Zambia, “2010 Summary Census Wall Chart”, Central Statistical Office, 2010. Available online: www.zamstat.gov.zm/report/census/2010/Provoncial/2010SummaryCensusWallChart-CopperbeltProvince.pdf.Accessed:29/06/2016.
[4]
P. O. Sobukola, O. S. Awonorin, A. M. Idowu and O. F. Bamiro, “Chemical and Physical hazard profile of ‘robo’ processing – a street vended melon snack”, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2010, 43 (2): 237 – 242.
[5]
C. H. Thompson and C. W. Kelly, W. C, “Vegetable Crops”, McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 1990, New Delhi.
[6]
F. P. J. D’Mello, “Food safety: Contamination and Toxins”, CABI Publishing, 2003, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, Cambridge, M. A., 480.
[7]
C. D. Adriano, “Trace metals in the Terrestrial Environment”, 1984, New York: Verlag Spiegler.
[8]
U. Divrikli, S. Saracoglu, M. Soylak, and L. Elci, “Determination of trace heavy metals contents of green vegetables samples from Kayseri-Turkey by flame atomic absorption spectrometry”, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 2003, 12: 1123–1125.
[9]
S. M. Dundar and B. H. Saglam, “Determination of cadmium and vanadium in tea varieties and their infusions in comparison with 2 infusion processes”, Trace Element Elect., 2004, 21: 60–63.
[10]
H. Colak, M. Soylak and O. Turkoglu, “Determination of trace metal content of herbal and fruit teas of Populus nigra L. from Western Anatolia, Turkey”, Journal of Environmental Biology, 2005, 26: 665–668.
[11]
M. I. Zaidi, A. Asrar, A. Mansoor and A. M. Farooqui, “The heavy metal concentrations along roadsides trees of Quetta and its effects on public health”, Journal of Applied Science, 2005, 5 (4): 708–711.
[12]
L. Jarup, “Hazards of heavy metals contamination”, Br. Med. Bulletin. 2003, 68: 167–182.
[13]
G. N. Sathawara, J. D. Parikish and K. Y. Agrwal, “Essentials heavy metals in environmental samples from western Indian”, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2004, 73: 756–761.
[14]
U. Divrikli, N. Horzum, M. Soylak and L. Elci, “Trace heavy metal contents of some spices and herbal plants from Western Anatolia, Turkey”, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2006, 41: 712–716.
[15]
P. Kovacheva, R. Djingova and I. Kuleff, “On the representative sampling of plants for multi-element analysis”, Phyto. Bal., 2000, 6: 91–102.
[16]
A. Lozak, K. Soltyk, P. Ostapczuk and Z. Fijalek, “Determination of selected trace elements in herbs and their infusions”, Science of Total Environment, 2002, 289: 33–40.
[17]
M. O. Atrouse, A. S. Oran and Y. S. Al-Abbadi, “Chemical analysis and identification of pollen grains from different Jordanian honey samples”, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2004, 39: 413–417.
[18]
World Health Organization (WHO), “Cadmium”. Environmental Health Criteria, Geneva, 1993, 134.
[19]
World Health Organization (WHO), “Lead”, Environmental Health Criteria, Geneva, 1995, 165.
[20]
B. K. Steenland, “Lead and cancer in humans: where are we now?”, American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2000, 38: 295–299.
[21]
Official Methods of Analysis, “15th Ed., AOAC”, Arlington, VA, 2002, Method 999.11.
[22]
M. Radojvic and N. V. Bashkin, “Practical Environmental Analysis”, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Cambridge, UK, 1999, 405–500.
[23]
JOINT FAO/WHO FOOD STANDARDS PROGRAMME, “CODEX Alimentarius Committee on Contaminants in food”, The Hague, The Netherlands, ALINORM CF/5 INFO/1, 21-25th March 2011, 1–90.
[24]
H. Zhou, W. Yang, X. Zhou, L. Liu, J. Gu, W. Wang, J. Zou, T. Tian, P. Peng and B. Liao, “Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment”, International Journal ofEnvironmental Research and Public Health, 2016, 13: 289–301.
[25]
A. M. Radwan and K. A. Salama, “Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables”, Food Chemical Toxicology, 2006, 44: 1273–1278.
[26]
T. Kananke, J. Wansapala, and A. Gunaratne, “Heavy Metal Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Collected from Selected Market Sites of Piliyandala Area, Colombo District, Sri Lanka”, American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014, 2 (5): 139-144.
[27]
A. Mashi, Y. I. EL-Ladan and A. Yaro, “Atmospheric contamination by heavy metals in Ilupeju industrial area of Lagos”, International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 2014, 3 (2): 833-840.
[28]
L. F. Domergue and C. J. Vedy, “Mobility of heavy metals in soil profiles”, International Environmental Chemistry, 1992, 46: 13-23.
[29]
O. M. Osundiya, O. O. Ayejuyo, A. R. Olowu, A. O. Bamgboye and O. A. Ogunlola, “Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in frequently consumed leafy vegetable grown along Nigeria-Benin Seme Border, West Africa”, Advanced Applied Science Research, 2014, 5 (1): 1-7.
[30]
Y. Ikenaka, M. M. M. S. Nakayama, K. Muzandu, K. Choongo, H. Teraoka, N. Mizuno and M. Ishizuka, “Heavy metal contamination of soil and sediment in Zambia”. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2010, 4 (11): 729-739.
[31]
F. Mendelssohn, “The Geology of the Northern Rhodesian Copperbelt”. London: Macdonald & Co., 1961.
Browse journals by subject